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来源:山西省平遥中学2017-2018学年高一下学期期中考试英语试卷

    In much of Asia, especially the so-called "rice bowl" cultures of China, Japan, Korea, ① Vietnam, food is usually eaten with chopsticks.
    Chopsticks are usually two long, thin pieces of wood or bamboo. They can also be made of plastic, animal bone or metal. Sometimes chopsticks are quite artistic. Truly elegant chopsticks might ②(make) of gold and silver with Chinese characters. Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal ③(create) special designs.
    The Chinese have used chopsticks for five thousand years. People probably cooked their food in large pots, ④(use) twigs(树枝) to remove it. Over time, ⑤the population grew, people began cutting food into small pieces so it would cook more quickly.
    Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which ⑥(gradual) turned into chopsticks.
    Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius, ⑦lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the ⑧(develop) of chopsticks. Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and ⑨(be) too violent for use at the table.
    Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. In India, for example, most people traditionally eat ⑩their hands.
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关系代词的概念:

英语中的关系代词有who, whom, whose, that, which, 它们是用来引导定语从句的。关系代词既代表定语从句所修饰的词,又在其所引导的从句中承担一个成分,如主语、宾语、表语、或定语。
如:This is the man who saved your son. (who在从句中作主语,先行词是man) 
        The man whom I met yesterday is Jim.
        A child whose parents are dead is an orphan.
        He wants a room whose window looks out over the sea.

关系代词用法:

1、that与which的用法区别:
      两者都可指物,常可互换。其区别主要在于:
(1)引导非限制性定语从句时,通常要用which:
如:She received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise. 她收到了老板的邀请,这是她意想不到的。
(2)直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用which:
如:The tool with which he is working is called a hammer. 他干活用的那个工具叫做锤子。
(3)当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing)等时,通常用that:
如:There was little that the enemy could do but surrender. 敌人无法,只有投降了。
        All[Everything] that can be done must be done. 凡能做的事都必须做。
(4)当先行词有the very, the only, the same等修饰时,通常用that:
如:This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。
        Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。
(5)当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时,通常用that:
如:This is the best dictionary that I've ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。
        The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。 
(6)当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that:
如:China is not the country(that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。
(7)当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that:
如:They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。
(8)当要避免重复时:
如:Which is the course that we are to take? 我们选哪门课程?

2、that与who的用法区别:

(1)两者均可指人,有时可互换:
如:All that[who] heard him were delighted. 所有听了他讲话的人都很高兴。    
        Have you met anybody that[who] has been to Paris? 你遇见过到过巴黎的人吗?
        He is the only one among us that[who] knows Russian. 他是我们中间唯一懂俄语的人。
(2)但是在下列情况,通常要用that: 
   ①当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时: 
如:I made a speech on the men and things that I had seen abroad. 我就我在国外所见到的人和事作了报告。
   ②当先行词是who时(为避免重复):
如:Who was it that won the World Cup in1982? 谁赢得了1982年的世界杯?
   ③当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时(可省略):
如:Tom is not the boy(that) he was. 汤姆这孩子已不是以前那个样子了。

关系代词知识体系:

 

关系代词用法拓展:

1、as与which的用法区别
(1)引导限制性定语从句时,在such,as,thesame后只能用as,其他情况用which:
如:I never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过他讲那样的故事。
        It's the same story as I heard yesterday. 这故事跟我昨天听到的一样。
        This is the photo which shows my house. 这张照片拍的是我的住宅。
(2)引导非限制性定语从句时,有时两者可互换:
如:I live a long way from work, as [which] you know. 我住得离工作单位很远,这你是知道的。
(3)但在,在以下情况引导非限制性定语从句时,两者不可换用:
①当从句位于主句前面时,只用as:
如:As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. 月球每月绕地球转一周,这是每个人都清楚的。
②as引导的非限制性定语从句应与主句在意义上和谐一致,which无此限制:
如:He went abroad, as[which] was expected. 他出国了,这是大家预料到的。
        He went abroad, which was unexpected. 他出国了,这让大家感到很意外。(不用as)
③as引导非限制性定语从句时,先行词通常不能是主句中某个具体的词,而应是整个句子、整个短语或某个短语推断出来的概念,而which则无此限制:
如:The river, which flows through London, is called the Thames. 这条流经伦敦的河叫泰晤士河。(不用as)
④当as引导非限制性定语从句作主语时,其谓语通常应是连系动词,而不宜是其他动词,而which则无此限制:
如:She has married again, as[which] seemed natural. 她又结婚了,这似乎很自常。
        She has married again, which delighted us.她又结婚了,这使我们很高兴。(不用as)

2、who与whom的用法区别:
两者均只用于人,从理论上说,who为主格,whom为宾格:
如:Where's the girl who sells the tickets? 卖票的女孩在哪里?
        The author whom you criticized in your view has written a letter in reply. 你在评论中批评的那个作者已写了一封回信。
但实际上,除非在正式文体中,宾格关系代词whom往往省略不用,或用who或that代之:
如:The man(that, who, whom) you met just now is called Jim. 你刚遇见的那个人叫吉姆。
不过,在以下几种情况值得注意:
(1)直接跟在介词后面作宾语时,只能用whom,而且不能省略:
如:She brought with her three friends, none of whom I had ever met before. 她带了3个朋友来,我以前都没见过。
(2)引导非限制性定语从句且作宾语时,who和whom均可用,但以用whom为佳,此时也不能省略:
如:This is Jack, who[whom] you haven't met before. 这是杰克,你以前没见过。

介词和介词短语的概念:

介词是一种用来表示词与词、词与句之间的关系的虚词,在句中不能单独作句子成分。介词后面一般有名词、代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。介词可以分为时间介词、地点介词、方式介词和其他介词。

误用介词的三种情况:

1、多用介词:
多用介词可能是受汉语意思的影响将及物动词误用作不及物动词,也可能是受相关结构的影响而用错:
误:We discussed about the plan.
正:We discussed the plan. 我们讨论了计划。
误:Did he mention about the accident?
正:Did he mention the accident? 他提到那次事故了吗?
误:I saw her enter into the bank.
正:I saw her enter the bank. 我看见她进了银行。
误:He married with[to] a nurse.
正:He married a nurse. 他同一位护士结了婚。
误:How can contact with you?
正:How can contact you? 我怎么与你联系?
误:We should serve for the people heart and soul.
正:We should serve the people heart and soul. 我们应该全心全意地为人民服务。
误:Who controls over the factory? (但名词control可接over)
正:Who controls the factory? 谁管理这个工厂?
误:He has a great many of friends here. (比较a great number of)
正:He has a great many friends here. 他在这儿有很多朋友。

2、漏用介词:
漏用介词可能是受汉语意思的影响将不及物动词误用作及物动词,或是受相关结构的影响的影响而用错等:
误:This matter is difficult to deal. (deal with=处理)
正:This matter is difficult to deal with. 这事很难处理。
误:He is not a man to be depended.
正:He is not a man to be depended on. 他不是个可靠的人。
误:He took a cup of tea, and went on the story.
正:He took a cup of tea, and wentonwiththestory.他喝了一口茶,又接着讲故事。
误:My mother still regards me a child. (比较consider…as中的as可省略)
正:My mother still regards me as a child. 我母亲还把我当小孩看。
误:They insisted sending a car over to fetch us.
正:They insisted on sending a car over to fetch us.他们坚持要派车来接我们。
误:What he says is worth listening.
正:What he said is worth listening to.他的话值得一听。

3、错用介词:
错用介词的情况比较复杂,可能是因受汉语意思的而错,也可能是因弄不清搭配关系而错,可能是混淆用法而错,也可能是受相关结构的影响而错,可能是忽略语境而错,也可能是想当然的用错:
误:She called on his office yesterday. (call on+人,call at+地点)
正:She called at his office yesterday. 她昨天去了他办公室拜访。
误:He is engaged with a nurse.
正:He is engaged to a nurse.他与一位护士订了婚。
误:The sun rises from the east.
正:The sun rises in the east.太阳从东方升起。
误:Under his help, I finished it in time.
正:With his help, I finished it in time. 在他的帮助下,我及时做完了。
误:During he was in Japan, he visited many places.
正:During his stay in Japan, he visited many places.他在日本期间,参观过许多地方。
误:We are familiar to his character.
正:We are familiar with his character.我们了解他的性格。
误:Help yourself with the fruit.
正:Help yourself to the fruit.吃点水果吧。

介词的宾语:

 1、名词或代词作介词宾语:
如:Are you interested in history? 你对历史感兴趣吗?
        Don't worry about it. 别为它担心。
注:若是人称代词用作介词宾语,要注意用宾格。
如:No one can sing like her. 没有人能像她那样唱歌。(不能用like she)
2、动名词作介词宾语:
如:He is good at telling stories. 他善于讲故事。 
        In crossing the street he was run over. 他在穿过马路时被汽车撞倒。
3、过去分词作介词宾语:
如:We can't regard the matter as settled. 我们不能认为这事已经解决。
        I take it for granted you have read the book. 我以为你读过这本书。
:过去分词用作介词宾语通常只见于某些固定结构中,如上面第1句涉及regard…as(认为…是)结构,第2句涉及take sth for granted(认为某事属实)。在其他情况下,介词后通常不直接跟过去分词作宾语,若语义上需要接过去分词(表被动),可换用“being+过去分词”:
如:He went out without being seen by the others.他出去了,没有被其他人看见。
4、从句作介词宾语:
如:He was not satisfied with what she said. 他对她说的不满意。
        I'm worried about where he is. 我担心他上哪儿去了。
:介词后通常不接that从句,遇此情况需考虑用其他结构:
误:He paid no attention to that she was poor.
正:He paid no attention to the fact that she was poor. 他根本不注意她很穷这一事实。
但有个别介词(如except)可接that从句。
比较:I know nothing about him except that he lives next door./I know nothing about him except for the fact that he lives next door. 我只知道他住在隔壁,其它的就不知道了。
5、不定式作介词宾语:
如:I had no choice but to wait. 除了等,我没有别的选择。 
       He wanted nothing but to stay there. 他只想留在那儿。
       They did nothing but complain. 他们老是一个劲地抱怨。 
       He never did anything but watch TV. 除了看电视,他从不干任何事。
:(1)介词后接不定式的情形通常只见于but, except等极个别个词。该不定式有时带to,有时不带to,其区别是:若其前出现了动词do,其后的不定式通常不带to;
若其前没有出现动词do,则其后的不定式通常带to。 
(2)介词后虽然通常不直接跟不定式作宾语,但却可接“连接代词(副词)+不定式”结构:
如:He gave me some advice on how to do it. 对于如何做这事他给我提了些建议。
6、形容词作介词宾语:
如:Her pronunciation is far from perfect. 她的语音远不是完美的。
        In short, we must be prepared. 总而言之,我们要有准备。
        Things have gone from bad to worse. 事情越来越糟。
:(1)有些形容词用作介词宾语可视为其前省略了动名词being:
如:He regarded the situationas(being) serious. 他认为形势严重。
        His work is far from(being) satisfactory. 他的工作丝毫不令人满意。 
(2)有些“介词+形容词”的结构已构成固定搭配:in full全部地,全面地,无省略地; in private私下地,秘密地; in particular特别地;in general一般地,通常地,概括地; in brief 简言之;in short总之,简言之; in vain徒然地,徒劳无益地;for fee免费地,无偿地; for certain肯定地,确切地;for sure肯定地,确切地; for short为了简短,简称;atl arge自由自在地,逍遥法外; by far…得多
7、副词作介词宾语:
如:I can't stay for long. 我不能久呆。 
        It's too hot in here. 这里面太热了。
        I looked every where except there. 除了那儿,我到处都看过了。
8、数词作介词宾语:
如:The city has a population of four million. 这座城市有四百万人口。
        He was among the first to arrive. 他是第一批到的。
9、介词短语作介词宾语:
如:Choose a book from among these. 从这些书中选一本吧。
        I saw her from across the street. 我从街的对面望见了她。
:通常可后接介词短语作宾语的介词是from, till, until, since, except, instead of等。
比较:I took it from the bed. 我从床那儿(或床上)拿的。
            I took it from under the bed. 我从床下拿的。 
10、复合结构用作介词宾语:
如:She had no objection to Mary marrying him. 她不反对玛丽与他结婚。
        She came in with a book in her hand. 她手里拿着一本书走了进来。
        All the afternoon he worked with the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里工作。

介词短语的句法功能:
1、表语:
如:He was with a friend. 他和一个朋友在一起。
        Health is above wealth. 健康胜过财富。
        This knife is for cutting bread. 这把小刀是用于切面包的。
:有些介词(如because of)引出的短语通常只用作状语,不用作表语:
误:His absence is because of the rain.
正:His absence is due to the rain. 他因雨未来。
但是,若主语是代词(不是名词),becauseof引出的短语可用作表语:
如:It is because of hard work. 那是因为辛苦工作的原因。
2、状语:
如:Don't touch it with your hands. 别用手去摸它。
        Did you do this by design or by accident? 你这样做是有意的还是无意的?
3、定语:
如:This is his reply to your letter. 这是他给你的回信。
        This is the best way of doing it. 这是做此事最好的方法。
        My love for you is deeper than the sea. 我对你的爱比海深。
4、宾语补足语:
如:I found everythingin good condition. 我发现一切正常。
       Her illness kept her in bed for a week. 她因生病在床上躺了一星期。
:用作宾语补足语的介词短语在相应的被动语态中则为主语补足语:
如:He was regarded as a hero. 他被看成是英雄。
5、宾语:
如:A man stepped out from behind the wall. 一个人从墙后走出来。
        He cannot spare anytime except on Sunday. 除星期日外,他抽不出时间。
6、主语:
如:Between6 and 7 suits me. 六点到七点对我比较适合。
        After the exams is the time to relax. 考试后是轻松一下的时间。
:介词短语通常不用作主语,尽管有时也像上面这样用作主语,但通常可视为是在一定的上下文中有所省略:
如:—When are we going to have the next meeting? 我们下次什么时候见面?
        —On Tuesday may be convenient. 星期二可能比较方便。
此句中onTuesday虽用作主语,但可视为是其前省略了meeting一词:
即:Meeting during the vacation may be convenient.

并列连词的概念:

连词是一种虚词,它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词,短语与短语以及句与句的作用。连词主要可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组和分句。如:and, but, or, nor, so, therefore, yet, however, for, hence, as well as, both...and, notonly...butalso, either...or, neither...nor, (and)then 等等。

并列连词与并列结构:

并列连词引导两个并列的句子。
1)and与or:
判断改错:
(错) They sat down and talk about something.
(错) They started to dance and sang.
(错) I saw two men sitting behind and whisper there.
(对) They sat down and talked about something.
(对) They started to dance and sing.
(对) I saw two men sitting behind and whispering there.
解析:第一句:and连接两个并列的谓语,所以talk应改为talked。
            第二句:and连接两个并列的动词不定式,第二个不定式往往省略to,因此sang应改为sing。
            第三句:and连接感观动词saw后面的用作的宾补的两个并列分词结构,因此whisper应改为whispering。
注意:and还可以和祈使句或名词词组连用表示条件。(or也有此用法)
如:Make up your mind, and you'll get the chance.=If you make up your mind, you'll get the chance.
        One more effort, and you'll succeed.=If you make one more effort, you'll succeed.
2)both...and 两者都
如:She plays(both) the piano and the guitar.
3)not only...but(also), as well as 不但…而且
如:She plays not only the piano, but(also) the guitar.
注意:not only…but also关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词not而必须倒装。
如:Not only does he like reading stories, but also he can even write some.
4)neither...nor 意思为“既不……也不……”谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致。
如:Neither you nor he is to blame.

比较so和such :

so与such的用法由不同词性决定。such是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。so还可与表示数量的形容词many,few,much,little连用,形成固定搭配。
构成:so+adj.
            such+a(n)+n.
            so+adj.+a(n)+n.
            such+n.(pl.)
            so+adj.+n.(pl.)
            such+n.(pl.)
            so+adj.+n.[不可数] 
            such+n.[不可数]
如:so foolish 
        such a fool  
        so nice a flower 
        such a nice flower 
        so many/few flowers 
        such nice flowers 
        so much/ little money.
        such rapid progress
        so many people
        such a lot of people
:so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于many,但a lot of为名词性的,只能用such搭配。 so...that与such...that之间的转换既为so与such之间的转换。

并列连词用法点拨:

1、表示并列关系:
1)or意思为“否则”。
如:I must work hard, or I'll fail in the exam.
2)either...or意思为“或者……或者……”。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。
如:Either you or I am right.
2、表示转折或对比关系:
1)but表示转折,while表示对比。
如:Some people love cats, while others hate them.
典型例题:
—Would you like to come to dinner tonight?
—I'd like to, ___ I'm too busy.
    A. and
    B. so
    C. as
    D. but
答案:D。but与前面形成转折,符合语意。而表并列的and,结果的so,原因的as都不符合句意。
2)not...but...意思为“不是……而是……” not和but后面的用词要遵循一致原则。
如:They were not the bones of an animal, but(the bones) of a human being.
3、表示原因关系:
1)for 判断改错:
(错)For he is ill, he is absent today.
(对)He is absent today, for he is ill.  for是并列连词,不能置于含两个并列分句的句子的句首,只能将其放在两个分句中间。

并列连词知识体系

种类 用法 举例
并列连词 表示转折关系 yet, but等
表示并列关系 and, or, either...or..., as welll as等
表示因果关系 for, so等

比较and和or的用法:

1)并列结构中,or通常用于否定句,and用于肯定句。
2)但有时and也可用于否定句。请注意其不同特点:
如:There is no air or water in the moon.
        There is no air and no water on the moon.
在否定中并列结构用or连接,但含有两个否定词的句子实际被看作是肯定结构,因此要用and。

典型例题

—I don't like chicken___fish.
—I don't like chicken, ___I like fish very much.
A. and;and
B. and;but
C. or;but
D. or;and
答案:C。否定句中表并列用or,but表转折。
判断改错:
(错)We will die without air and water.
(错)We can't live without air or water.
(对)We will die without air or water.
(对)We can't live without air and water.

从属连词的概念:

连词用于引导从句以形成句子的一部分或修饰句子的构成要素的叫作从属连词。

英语从属连词用法分类详解:

1、引导时间状语从句的从属连词:
 (1)表示“当…时候”或“每当”的时间连词。主要的when, while, as, whenever:
如:He jumped up when the phone rang. 电话铃响时他吓了一跳。 
        We listened while the teacher read. 老师朗读时我们听着。
        The phone rang just as I was leaving. 我正要离开,电话铃就响了起来。
(2)表示“在…之前(或之后)”的时间连词。主要的有before, after:
如:Turn the lights off before you leave. 离开前请关灯。
        He started the job soon after he left the university. 他大学毕业后就开始做这份工作。
(3)表示“自从”或“直到”的时间连词。主要的有since, until, till:
如:He has lived here since he got married. 他结婚后就一直住在这儿。
        Most men worked until[till] they're 65. 大多数男人工作到65岁。
(4)表示“一…就”的时间连词。主要的有as soon as, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等:
如:Tell him the news as soon as you see him. 你一见到他就把这消息告诉他。
        I recognized her the moment(that) I saw her. 我一看到她就认出她来了。
        I want to see him the minute(that) he arrives. 他一到来我就要见他。
        I went home directly I had finished work. 我一干完活就回家了。
       Once he arrives, we can start. 他一来我们就可以开始。
(5)表示“上次”、“下次”、“每次”等的时间连词。主要的有every time(每次),each time(每次),(the) next time(下次),any time(随时),(the) last time(上次),the first time(第一次):
如:Last time I saw him, he looked ill. 上次我见到他的时候,他好像有病。
        Next time you're in London come and visit us. 你下次来伦敦过来探望我们。
        Do look me up next time you're in London. 你下次到伦敦来,一定来找我。
        Every time I call on him, he is out. 我每次去访问他,他都不在。
       You can call me any time you want to. 你随时都可以给我打电话。
【注】every time,each time,any time前不用冠词,(the)next time, (the)last time中的冠词可以省略,而the first time中的冠词通常不能省略。
2、引导条件状语从句的从属连词:
这类连词主要有if, unless, as[so] long as, incase等:
如:If anyone calls tell them I'm not at home. 要是有人打电话来,就说我不在家。
        You will fail unless you work hard. 你若不努力就会失败。
        As[So] long as you need me, I'll stay. 只要你需要我,我就留下。
        In case I forget, please remind me about it. 万一我忘记,请提醒我一下。
【注】在条件状语从句中,通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态。不过,有时表示条件的if之后可能用will,但那不是将来时态,而是表示意愿或委婉的请求(will为情态动词):
如:If you will wait a moment, I'll fetch the money. 请等一下,我就去拿钱。
3、引导目的状语从句的从属连词:
主要有in order that, so that, in case, for fear等:
如:We used the computer in order that we might save time. 我们使用计算机是为了节约时间。
        Speak clearly so that they may understand you. 说清楚,以便让他们能明白你的意思。
        Be quiet in case you should wake the baby. 安静些,免得把婴儿吵醒。
        He is working hard for fear he should fail. 他努力工作以免会失败。
4、引导结果状语从句的从属连词:
主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等:
如:We're all here now, so that the meeting can begin at last. 我们现在都到齐了,终于能开会了。
        It's so difficult a question that none of us can answer it. 那是一个很难的问题,我们没有一个人能回答。
        He shut the window with such force that the glass broke. 他关窗户用力很大,结果玻璃震破了。
【注】so that中的that在口语中通常可以省略。
5、引导原因状语从句的从属连词:
主要的有because, as, since, seeing(that), now(that), considering(that)等:
如:He couldn't got to school because he had a cold. 他因患感冒而未能去上学。
        Since everybody is here, let's begin our discussion. 大家都到了,我们就开始吧。
        Seeing that it is 8o'clock, we'll wait no longer. 由于时间已到8点,我们将不再等了。
        Now that you are here, you'd better stay. 你既然来了,最好还是留下吧。
6、引导让步状语从句的从属连词:
主要有although, though, eventhough, even if, while, however, whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever等:
如:Although[Though] he is poor, he is well contented. 他虽穷却能知足常乐。
        Though[Even though] it's hard work, I enjoy it. 尽管是苦活,但我乐意干。
        Even if you don't like wine, try a glass of this. 即使你不喜欢喝酒,也尝尝这杯吧。
7、引导方式状语从句的从属连词:
主要有as, like, as if, as though, the way等:
如:Do it as[like] he does. 像他那样做。
        He behaved as if nothing had happened. 他装作若无其事的样子。
        They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。
        Nobody else loves you the way(=as) I do.没有人像我这样爱你。
8、引导地点状语从句的从属连词:
主要有where, wherever, everywhere等:
如:There were lots of parks where I lived. 我住的地方有许多公园。
        Sit wherever you like. 你想坐在那儿就坐在那儿。
        Everywhere they went, they were warmly welcomed. 他们每到一个地方都受到热烈欢迎。
9、引导比较状语从句的从属连词:
主要有than和as…as:
如:It's easier than I thought. 这比我想像的要容易。
        They are as often wrong as they are right. 他们错对各半。
10、引导名词性从句的从属连词:
主要有that, if, whether:
如:It is clear enough what he meant. 他是什么意思很清楚。 
       Your greatest fault is that you are careless. 你最大的缺点是粗心大意。
       Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen.是否对我们有害还要看一看。
       She didn't say if he was still alive. 她没说他是否还活着。

从属连词知识体系:

 

用作从属连词的六类名词结构:

英语中有些名词结构可用作从属连词,用以引导状语从句,且主要是时间状语从句。这类结构归纳起来有以下六类:
一、the+瞬间名词:
其中的瞬间名词主要包括moment, minute, instant, second等,其意为“一……就……”,相当于as soon as。
如:The minute he saw her he fell in love. 他对她一见倾心。  
Telephone me the moment(that) you get the results. 你一有结果,马上给我打电话。 
I was so tired that I fell asleep the instant I closed my eyes. 我很累,一合上眼就睡着了。
Sheputdownthereceiverthesecondsherecognizedmyvoice.她一听出是我的声音,马上就放下电话听筒。
注:其中的瞬间名词后可接that,也可省略。另外,有的个别副词(如directly/immediately等)也可表示类似意思。
如: Immediately the meal was over,he switchedon the radio.饭一吃完他就把收音机打开。

二、the+季节名词:
其中的季节名词包括spring,summer,autumn,winter,其意为“在……的那年春天、夏天、秋天、冬天。
如:His wife left him thes pring he went abroad.在他出国的那年春天,他的妻子离开了他。
He sold his house and went to the souththe summer he lost hisjob.在他失业的那年夏天,他卖掉房子去了南方。
He was sentto prison the winter his third daughter was born.在他第三个女儿出生的那年冬天,他被关进了监狱。
She got married the autumn she graduated from college.她大学毕业的那年秋天就结婚了。

三、the+时间名词:
其中的时间名词主要包括hour,day,night,week,month,season,year等,其意为“在……的时候、那天、那个晚上、那周、那个月、那个季节、那年”。
如: The hour he wa sin her office,he felt very sad.当他在她办公室的时候,他感到很伤心。
The day here turned home,his father was already dead.他回家的那一天,他的父亲已经死了。
The night I wenttoseeher,shehadleftforBeijingtoattendanimportantmeeting.就我去看她的那个晚上,她到北京去开一个重要的会议了。
Mr Smith didn't go to work the week his wife was ill.史密斯先生在他妻子生病的那个星期没去上班。
They ear helivedinthecountry,he learned alot.他在乡下呆的那一年,他学到了不少东西。

四、the+序数词+time
其中的序数词包括first,second,third,fourth等,其意为“当第几次……的时候”。
如: My girlfriend beat me at pokert he first time weplayed.我头一次和女朋友打扑克,她就把我赢了。
These cond time I saw her,she looked like an old woman.我第二次见到她时,她看上去像一个老太婆。
The third time I went there,I found all of them had left and the offices were all empty.我第三次去那儿时,我发现他们都离开了,所有的办公室都是空的。
注:
1.next,last也具有类似序数词的性质,因此也具有以上用法。
如: Nexttimeyoucomein,pleaseclosethedoor.下次你进来,请关门。
Thelasttimewetalkedhesaidheneededanothertwodays.上次我们谈话时他说他还需要两天。
2.thefirsttime,thesecondtime,thethirdtime等用作连词引导时间状语从句时,其前通常要有定冠词,而(the)nexttime,(the)lasttime引导状语从句时,其中的冠词可以省略,如下面这道上海高考题,其答案是C,不是A:
I though ther nice and honest______Imether.
A.first time  B.fo rthe first time C.the first timeD.by the first time

五、不定代词+time
其中的不定代词主要包括each,every,any等。
如:Every time I ringher,the phone is engaged.我每次给她打电话,电话都占线。
Every time I see him he either wants to tell me his trouble or borrow some money.每次我见到他,他不是向我诉苦,就是要向我借钱。
He felt nervous each times he spoke to him.每次她和他讲话,他都感到紧张。
AnytimeyoucometoLondondolookmeup.你无论什么时候到伦敦来,一定要来看我。
注意:everytime,eachtime,anytime用作连词引导状语从句时其前习惯上不用冠词,它与the first time,these cond time,the third time等引导时间状语从句时其前必须要用定冠词不同。

六、其他名词结构
以上归纳的名词结构均用于引导时间状语从句,有些其他结构还可引导其他性质的状语从句,如the way可用于引导方式状语从句,表示“像……一样”。如:
The didn’t do it the way we do now.那时他们不像我们现在这样行事。
Joyce looked at me the way alotof girls did.乔伊丝像许多姑娘那样瞧着我。
注:这样用的theway与as用法相似。
如:Hold itin both hands,the way(=as)Mummy does.用两只手捧住,像妈妈那样。

现在分词的概念:

现在分词(PresentParticiple)(又称-ing形式),是分词的一种,是非限定动词,即在句子里面不能单独充当谓语,但能充当其它的一些成分(定语,表语,补语和状语)。一般式:doing;一般被动式:being done;完成式:having done;完成被动式:having been done。所有否定式都是在-ing前面加not。

现在分词的用法:

1)做表语:
如:He was very amusing.
        That book was rather boring.
很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语:exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling.
2)作定语:
上面所出现的现在分词都可以用作定语,修饰一个名词:
如:That must have been a terrifying experience.
        I found him a charming person.
现在分词短语还可以放在名词的后面修饰名词,相当于一个定语从句:
如:There are a few boys swimming in the river.
        There is a car waiting outside.
3)作状语:
现在分词短语可以表示一个同时发生的次要的或伴随的动作:
如:Following Tom, we started to climb the mountain. 
        Opening the drawer, he took out a box.
        Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.
现在分词短语还可以表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句:
如:Not knowing her address, we couldn't get in touch with her.
        Being unemployed, he hasn't got much money.
现在分词短语还可以表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句:
如:Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.
        Returning home, he began to do his homework. 
        Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.
        Be careful when crossing the road.
        Having found a hotel, we looked for some where to have dinner.
        Having finished her work, she went home.
4)作宾补:
现在分词在一些动词之后可以做宾语的补语:
例如:see, hear, catch, find, keep, have等。
如:I see him passing my house every day.
        I caught him stealing things in that shop.
        I smelt something burning.
        She kept him working all day.

现在分词其他用法解析:

1、现在分词一般式的用法:
现在分词的一般式所表示的动作与主语动作同时发生:
如:When we arrived, we found him sleeping. 我们到达时发现他在睡觉。
         Living in the 示的动作也可略早于或迟于谓语动作,但两者之间没有时间间隔:
如:Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave a note. 发现没有在家,他决定留个字条。 
         He went home, finding the door locked. 他回到家,发现门是锁着的。当现在分词所表示的动作略迟于谓语动作时,现在分词通常位于句末。

2、现在分词完成式的用法:
现在分词的完成式主要表示发生在谓语动作之前的动作:
如:Having been there once, she knew the place quite well. 由于去过那儿一次,她对那地方很熟悉。
        Having failed twice, he didn't want to try again. 他已经失败了两次,不想再试了。
注:(1)现在分词的一般式和完成式均可表示已完成或先于谓语的动作,但有区别:现在分词所表示的动作虽然可以先于谓语动作,但两者之间没有时间间隔,而现在分词的完成式所表示先于谓语的动作则与谓语动作有一定的时间间隔:
如:Locking the door, he went out. 锁好门之后,他就出去了。
        Having invited him here to speak, we'd better go to his lecture. 既然我们请了他来作报告,我们最好去听一下。
有时即使是分词动作与谓语动作几乎同时发生,但如果要强调分词动作的完成性,也应用现在分词的完成式:
如:Having bought our tickets, we went into the theatre. 我们买好票后就走进剧场。
(2)现在分词的完成式一般不用作定语:
误:Do you know anyone having lost a cat? 你知道有谁丢了一只猫吗?
误:I want to talk to the person having broken the window. 我想同打破窗户的人谈谈。
若将以上现分词的完成式改为一般式也不可以(因为现在分词作后置定语时通常只表示与谓语动作同时或几乎同时发生的动作,而不能先于谓语动作而发生):
误:I want to talk to the person breaking the window.

3、现在分词被动式的用法:
当要表示一个被动动作时,现在分词就用被动形式。现在分词的一般式和完成式均有被动式形式:
(1)现在分词一般式的被动式:主要表示现在正在进行的动作,也可表示与谓语动作同时发生的动作:
如:Who is the woman being operated on? 正在动手术的女人是谁?
         I saw him being taken away by the police. 我看见他被警察带走。
:有时现在分词一般式的被动式所表示的动作也可发生在谓语动作之前(此时的现在分词通常用于表示原因,且多为状态动词):
如:Not having a car, he finds it difficult to get around. 由于没车,她感到行动很困难。
(2)现在分词完成式的被动式:主要表示发生在谓语动词之前且已经完成的动作。
如:The subject having been opened, he had to go on with it. 话题已经开始了,他不得不谈下去。
        Having been written inhaste, the book has many mistakes. 这书因写得仓促,所以错误不少。
比较:Being so ill, she can't go to school. 由于病得那么严重,她不能去上学。
            Having been ill for a long time, he needed time to recover. 由于病了很长时间,他需要一段恢复的时间。

动词不定式的概念:

动词不定式指由to加上动词原形(而且只能是动词原形)所构成的一种非限定性动词,但在有些情况下to可以省略。动词不定式在语法功能上可作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、
表语、定语和状语。

不定式的特殊句型对比:

1、不定式的特殊句型too…to…:
1)too…to 太…以至于…。
例如:He is too excited to speak. 他太激动了,说不出话来。  
        —Can I help you? 需要我帮忙吗?
        —Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carryi t, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢。
2)如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定,too后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意为“不太”。
例如:It's never too late to mend. 改过不嫌晚。(谚语) 
3)当too前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常…等于very。
例如:I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 能帮助你我非常高兴。 
            He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。
2、不定式的特殊句型so as to:
1)表示目的:它的否定式是so as not to do。
例如:Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。   
            Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。
2)表示结果:
例如:Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? 劳驾,现在几点了。
3、不定式的特殊句型:Why not:
“Whynot+动词原形”表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:为什么不……?   干吗不……?
例如:Why not take a holiday?

不定式的用法:

1、不定式作补语:
1)有些有动词+宾语+不定式的结构。
例如:advise allow cause challenge command compel drive驱使
enable encourage forbid force impel induce instruct invite like/love order permit make let have want get warn persuade request send tell train urge 等。
例如:Father will not allow us to play on the street. 父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。      
            The officer ordered his men to fire. 长官命令士兵开火。
注意:有些动词如make,have,get,want等可用不定式作做宾补,也可用分词作宾补。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。
2)有些有动词+宾语+不定式的结构,不定式的动词往往是be,不定式一般可以省去。
例如:consider find believe think declare(声称) appoint guess fancy(设想) guess judge imagine know 等。
例如:We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。 
            We know him to be a fool. 我们知道他是个笨蛋。(tobe不能省去)
典型例题:Charles Babbage is generally considered___the first computer.
                    A. to invent 
                    B. inventing 
                    C. to have invented 
                    D. having invented 
答案:C. 一般没有consider+宾语+be以外不定式的结构,也没有consider+宾语+doing的结构,排除A、B、D。consider用动词be以外的不定式作宾补时,一般要求用不定式的完成式,故选C。 3)有些动词可以跟there+to be的结构。例如:believe expect intend like love mean prefer want wish understand 等。
例如:We didn't expect there to be so many people there. 我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。
            You wouldn't want there to be another war. 你不至于想让另外一场战争发生吧。
2、不定式作主语:
不定式作主语,往往用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式放至句子的后面。 
例如:It's so nice to hear your voice. 听到你的声音真高兴。
            It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it. 不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。 
            It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。 
            It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。
3、不定式作表语:
不定式可放在be动词后面,形成表语。
例如:My work is to clean the room every day. 我的工作是每天清扫房间。  
            His dream is to be a doctor. 他的梦想是成为一名医生。
4、不定式作定语:
不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后,往往表示未发生的动作。
例如:I have a lot of work to do.我有许多事要做。   
            There was nothing to bring home that morning. 那天早上(他回家时)两手空空。
5、不定式作状语:
1)目的状语:常用结构为to do,only to do(仅仅为了), in order to do,so as to do,so(such)...asto…(如此…以便…)。
例如:He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。  
            I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。
2)作结果状语,可以表示没有预料到的或事与愿违的结果,不定式要放在句子后面。
例如:I awoke to find my truck gone. 我醒来发现箱子不见了。  
            He searched the room only to find nothing. 他搜索了房间,没发现什么。
3)表原因:
例如:I'm glad to see you.  见到你很高兴。
            She wept to see the sight. 她一看到这情形就哭了。
4)表示理由和条件:
例如:He must be a fool to say so.
            You will do well to speak more carefully.
            You will do well to speak more carefully.

不定式知识体系:

 

不定式用法拓展:

1、用作介词的to:
to可以用作介词,也可用作不定式的标示。下面的to都用作介词:admit to  object to  beaccus to  med to  beused to  stick to  turn to开始 look forward to  be devoted to  pay attention to  contribute to apologize to devote oneself to

2、省去to的动词不定式:
1)情态动词(除ought外)后。
2)使役动词let,have,make后,感官动词see, watch, lookat, notice, observe, hear, listento, smell, feel, find等后。
注意:被动语态中不能省去to。
例如:I saw him dance. 我看见他跳舞。=He was seen to dance.  
           The boss made them work the whole night. 老板让他们整夜干活。 =They were made to work the whole night.
3)would rather,had better句型后:
4)Why…/why not…句型后:
5)help后可带to,也可不带to, help sb(to)do sth:
6)but和except后:
but前是实义动词do时,后面出现的不定式不带to。
比较:He wants to do nothing but go out. 他只想出去玩。  
            He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 除了吃这药,他什么都信。
7)由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to可以省去:
8)通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think等词后作宾补时,可以省去to be。
例如:He is supposed(to be)nice. 他应该是个好人。

3、动词不定式的否定式在不定式标志to前加上not。
例如:Tell him not to shut the window。让他别关窗。 
            She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。
4、It's for sb. 和It's of sb. 这样的句子中,由于表语形容词性质的不同,导致了不定式逻辑主语标志用for或of的区别。
1)for sb. 句型中的形容词一般为表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等:
例如:It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。
2)of sb句型中的形容词一般为表示性格,品德,心智能力,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。
例如:It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。用for还是用of的另一种辨别方法:用介词for或of后面的逻辑主语作句子的主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果通顺用of,不通则用for。
例如:You are nice.(通顺,所以应用of)。  
            He is hard.(非所表达的意思,不通,因此用for。)

一般过去时的概念

一般过去时表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为;过去主语所具备的能力和性格。

一般过去时的用法:  

1、表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示过去时间的副词如:yesterday,last week,two hours ago等连用。  
如:My family moved here five years ago. 我家五年前搬到了这里。  
        I was born in 1973. 我生于1973年。  
2、表示过去一段时间经常或反复发生的动作。这时可与频度副词如:often,usually,always等连用。  
如:He always worked in tonight those days. 那些日子他总是工作到深夜。  
        I often left on business in 1987. 1987年我经常出差。  
:表示“过去经常,而今不再”时,要用usedto.
如:I used to read newspaper after breakfast. 我过去经常早饭后看报纸。(意指现在已不是这样)   
The children often swam in this river. 孩子们过去经常在这条河里游泳。  
3、表示过去发生的一连串动作。  
如:He put down the heavy box, took out the keys, and opened the door. 他放下这沉重的箱子,掏出钥匙开了房门。  
注:过去发生的一连串动作,若用and,or,but等并列连词连接,则一律用过去式。  
如:They moved the chairs to the table, sat down and began to have  supper. 他们把椅子搬到桌边,坐下开始吃饭。  
4、在时间和条件状语从句中,用一般过去时表示过去将来的动作。  
如:He said that he would let me know as soon as he got the information. 他说他一得到消息就立即让我知道。         
Mary told me that she would stay at home if it rained. 玛丽告诉我如果下雨她就呆在家里。

一般过去时的特别用法

1、句型:It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"。
例如:It is time for you to go to bed.你该睡觉了。  
            It is time that sb.did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了"。
例如:It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。  
2、would(had)rather sb.did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。
例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow. 还是明天来吧。
3、wish, wonder, think, hope等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。
例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。
比较:Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间。)  
            Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着)  
            Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)      
            Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.(含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)
注意:用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。
1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend等。
例如:Did you want any thing else? 您还要些什么吗?   
            I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。
2)情态动词could, would。
例如:Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗?

状语从句的概念:

状语从句指句子用作状语时,起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比较等从句。状语从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导,也可以由词组引起。从句位于句首或句中时通常用逗号与主句隔开,位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。

比较while/as/when:

1、as/when引导短暂性动作的动词例句:
如:Just as/Just when/When I stopped my car, a man came up to me.
2、当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用when引导这个从句,不可用as或while。
如:When you have finished your work, you may have a rest.
3、从句表示“随时间推移”连词能用as,不用when或while。
如:As the day went on, the weather got worse.

比较untill/till


两个连词意义相同,肯定形式表示的意思是“做某事直至某时”,动词必须是延续性的。否定形式表达的意思是“直至某时才做某事”,动词为延续性或非延续性都可以。
正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。
肯定句例句:I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。
                       Wait till I call you. 等着我叫你。
注意:在肯定句中可用before代替:Let's get in the wheat before the sunsets.
否定句例句:She didn't arrive until 6o'clock. 
                        I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how.
1、Until可用于句首,而till通常不用于句首。
例句:Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened.
2、Untilwhen疑问句中,until要放在句首。
例句:Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候?
注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。
1)Not until…在句首,主句用倒装。
例句:Not until the early years of the19th century did man know what heat is.
2)It is not until…that…

状语从句的用种类:

1、时间状语从句:
表示时间的状语从句可由when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till(until), since, once, as soon as(或the moment), by the time, no sooner…than, hardly(scarcely)… when, everytime等引导。   
e.g. When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting.   
       He started as soon as he received the news.   
       Once you see him, you will never forget him.   
       No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep.   
2、原因状语从句:
原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引导这类从句的最常用的连词是because, since, as, nowthat(既然)等,for表示因果关系时(它引导的不是从句)为并列连词,语气不如because强。   e.g. He is disappointed because he didn't get the position.   
      As it is raining, I will not go out.   
      Now that you mention it, I do remember.   
3、地点状语从句:   
引导地点状语从句的连词是where和wherever等。   
e.g. Sit wherever you like.   
      Make a mark where you have a question.   
4、目的状语从句:   
引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免)等。   
e.g. Speak clearly, so that they may understand you.   
      She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons.   
      He left early in case he should miss the train.   
5、结果状语从句:   
结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句是原因,从句是结果。由so that(从句谓语一般没有情态动词),so…that, such…that等引导。   
e.g. She was ill, so that she didn't attend the meeting.   
      He was so excited that he could not say a word.   
      She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her.   
6、条件状语从句:   
条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事情)条件句。
引导条件状语从句的词(组)主要有if, unless, so(as)long as, on condition that, so(as) far as, if only(=if)。
注意:条件从句中的if不能用whether替换。   
e.g. If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch.   
      You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean.   
      So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months.   
      You can go swimming on condition that(=if) you don't go too far away from the river bank.   
      If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her.  
7、让步状语从句:   
让步状语从句可由although, though, as, even if(though), however, whatever, whether…or, no matter who(when, what,…)等引导。
注意:as引导的让步状语从句一般是倒装的。   
e.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot.   
      Child a she is, he knows a lot.   
      Whatever(=No matter what) you say, I'll never change my mind.   
8、方式状语从句:   
方式状语从句常由as, as if(though), the way, rather than等引导。   
e.g.You must do the exercise as I show you.   
      He acted as if nothing had happened.   
9、比较状语从句:   
比较状语从句常用than, so(as)…as, the more…the more等引导。   
e.g. I have made a lot more mistakes than you have.   
      He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.   
      The busier he is, the happier he feels.

使用状语从句时要注意的几个问题:  

1、在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般现在时表示将来。  
e.g. We'll go outing if it doesn't rain tomorrow.   
       I'll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai.   
2、有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是it),从句的谓语又包含动词be,就可省略从句中的“主语+be”部分。  
e.g. When(hewas) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night.   
       If(you are) asked you may come in.   
       If(it is) necessary I'll explain to you again.   
3、注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以where为例,能引导多种从句。  
e.g. You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句)  
       Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,句中有先行词)  
       I don't know where he came from.(宾语从句)  
      Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从句)  
       This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)
注意:表示“一…就…”的结构 hardly/scarcely…when/before/no sooner…than和as soon as都可以表示“一…就…”的意思。
例句:I had hardly/scarcely got home when it began to rain.
            I had no sooner got home than it began to rain.
           As soon as I got home, it began to rain.
注意:如果hardly/scarcely或nosooner置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构:
例句:Hardly/Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain.
            No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.

非限制性定语从句的概念:

非限制性定语是对被修饰名词或代词的附加说明,它不是必需的,如果去掉,也不会影响句子的意思,它与被修饰名词之间通常用逗号分开。
如:The travellers, knowing about the floods, took another road. 游客们知道发了大水,都改道走了。
        The boys, wanting to play football, were disappointed when it rained. 那些男孩子想踢足球,因为下雨感到失望。

非限制性定语从句用法:

1、引导非限定性定语从句时,只能用which(不用that)。
例如:Heat is another form of energy, which is as important as other kinds of energy.
            热是另一种形式的能量,与其他形式的能量一样重要。 (从句表补充说明,而且关系代词which不能换成that。)   
2、引导非限定性定语从句的which可以指代前面的先行词,也可以指前面整个句子的含义。
例如:That Peter will marry Alice, which has not been announced yet, has spread around.
            彼特要娶爱丽斯这件事还没宣布,却已传得沸沸扬扬。(句子中的which指“彼特要娶爱丽斯”这整个句子的意思。)   
3、除which外,还可用when,where,who等关系代、副词引导非限定性定语从句。
例如:After graduation, I decided to stay in Chongqing, where I spent my childhood and four years of college life. 
毕业后,我决定留在重庆,在那里我曾度过了我的童年和四年大学生活。                    
Albert Einstein left Germany for the United States during World WarII, when Jews were badly treated in Germany.  
第二次世界大战期间,爱因斯坦离开德国去了美国,那时犹太人在德国受到不好的对待。   
4、在限定性定语从句中作宾语时,引导词可以省略,但引导非限定性定语从句的关联词不能省。
如:He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother, whom he loved and respected as his own mother. 
他急于想去医院看望他的继母,他把他的继母当作亲生母亲一样热爱和尊敬。       
The American journalist(whom/who) the announcer mentioned in the news broadcast is said to have been killed by the gangsters.
 播音员在新闻广播中提到的那位美国记者据说已经被匪徒杀害了。   
两例中的关系代词都在从句中作宾语。由于第二例是限定性定语从句,可以省略关系代词;第一例中的引导词不能省略,因为它引导的是非限定性定语从句。   
5、表示“正如”的含义时,通常用as引导非限定性定语从句,也可用which引导;但置于句首时,只能用as引导。   
如:China has basically succeeded in defeating SARS, which/as we have expected.
        正如我们所预料的那样,中国已基本上战胜了“非典”。     
        As is well known to everybody, Tai wan is an inseparable part of China.
        众所周知,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。   
但是当非限定性定语从句是否定含义时,就只能用which(而不用as)引导。
如:He didn't win the championship, which I hadn't expected.
        他没获得冠军,这一点是我没预料到的。

非限制性定语丛句中as, which的区别:

1、which引导非限制性定语丛句代表前面的整个句子的时候,一般是对主句的结果的说明。 
      如: He grows too fast, which makes him taller than his classmates.
2、as引导非限制性丛句代表前面整个句子时一般来讲丛句的谓语动词有三种:
A. 含有be动词:
如:He failed the exam, as is natural.
B. 实意动词的被动形式:
如:As is reported, the fire caused a great loss.
C.感官动词和意识类动词如:
如:see, hear, notice, know, learn, realize 等。 
        As you know, I am a teacher.
3、as可翻译为正如,它引导的丛句可位于主句之前,也可位于主句之后;which引导的该丛句只能位于主句之后。
例1:__A___he realized, I was very useful to him. 
例2:This elephant is like a snake, ___A__anybody can see. 
例3:The sun gives us light and heat, __B___makes the plan tgrow well.
          A. As(as)
          B. which
          C. that
          D. who

限定性定语从句与非限定性定语从句的区别:



从句

限制性定语从句 非限制性定语从句
1、不能省略,如果省略整个句子意思不完整。 可以省略,如果省略整个句子意思仍然完整。
2、可以用that引导。 不可以用that引导。
3、关联词有时可以省略。 关联词不可以省略。
4、不用逗号把它和句子的其他部分隔开。 用逗号把它和句子的其他部分隔开。
5、只能修饰先行词。 可以修饰先行词,也可以修饰整个句子或句子的一部分。

非限制性定语从句的关系词:

关系代词 指代对象 指代人 指代物
主格 who which, as
宾格 whom which, as
所有格 of, whom, whose which, of which, whose
关系副词:when, where

非限定性定语从句的使用规则及注意事项:

1、which引导的非限定性定语从句是用来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分。
2、在引导限定性定语从句时,that有时相当于in which, at which, for which或at which。其中,介词的选用,依据从句中的动词所需搭配的介词来选用。例句:
① Attitudes towards day dreaming are changing in much the same way that(inwhich)attitudes towards night dreaming have changed.
    人们对白日做梦的态度正在改变,这与人们对夜间做梦的看法的变化有非常相似之处。
② I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislike it. 
    我出于某种原因喜欢这种音乐,而他恰恰与我相反。
③ We arrived the day that(on which) they left.
    刚好我们到的那天他们走了。
3、as有时也可用作关系代词。
4、在非限定性定语从句中,关系词不能用that。

主谓一致的概念:

谓语的数必须和主语的人称和数保持一致,这就叫主谓一致。

主谓一致的基本原则:

1)语法一致原则,即在语法形式上取得一致。例如,主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语动词也采取复数形式。
例如:The students are very young.
            This picture looks beautiful.
2)意义一致原则,即从意义着眼处理一致关系。例如,主语形式虽是单数但意义是复数,谓语动词也采取复数形式;
而有些主语形式虽是复数但意义上看作单数,谓语动词也采取单数形式。
例如:The people in that country are fighting for independence.
            The crowd deeply respect their leader. 
            Three years in a strange land seems a long time.
3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单数或复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。
例如:Neither hen or I am going to see the film tonight because we are busy.

几对容易混淆词组的一致用法:

1、由“this/thatkind/typeof+名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式;而由"these/thosekind/typeof+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。
例如:This kind of apples is highly priced.
            Those kind(s) of tests are good.
2、由“a number of,a totalo f,an average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式;由“the number of,the total of,the average of+复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。
例如:A number of students are waiting for the bus.
            The number of the students in this university is increasing yearly.
3、one of,the(only) one of的一致用法
例如:This is one of the books that have been recommended.
            This is the(only) one of the books that has been recommended.

 主谓一致用法点拨:

1、并列结构作主语谓语用复数:
如:Reading and writing are very important.
注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。
如:The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.
典型例题:
The League secretary and monitor___asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A. is
B. was
C. are
D. were
答案:B.
注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A、C本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

2、主谓一致中的靠近原则:
1)当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
例如:There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.
            There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.
2)当either…or…与neither…nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。
如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。
例如:Either you or she is to go. 
            Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

3、谓语动词与前面的主语一致:
当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。
例如:The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 
            He as well as I wants to go boating.

4、谓语需用单数:

1)代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each,every,谓语需用单数。
例如:Each of us has a tape-recorder. 
2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。
例如:The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 
3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)
例如:Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
            Ten yuan is enough.

5、指代意义决定谓语的单复数:
1)在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。
例如:All is right. (一切顺利。)
            All are present. (所有人都到齐了。)
2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。
例如:family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。
例如:His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭。
            His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。
但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。
例如:Are there any police around?
3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。
A number of+名词复数+复数动词。 The number of+名词复数+单数动词。
例如:A number of books have lent out.
            The majority of the students like English.

6、与后接名词或代词保持一致:

1)用half of, part of, most of, a portion of等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。
例如:Most of his money is spent on books.
            Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.
2)在一些短语,如many a或more than one所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。
但由more than…of作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。
例如:Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。
            More than 60percent of the students are from the city. 百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市

主谓一致知识体系:

 

主谓一致用法拓展:

1)当everyone,everybody,noone,nobody,anyone,anybody,someone,somebody,everything,anything,something,nothing等用作主语时,其相应的代词一般用单数形式。
例如:If anybody calls, tell him that I'm out.
            Something strange happened, didn't it? 
2)人称代词与名词的呼应:人称代词I(me),he(him),she(her),it(it) 都是代替前面的单数名词,而they(them),we(us)则是代替复数名词的,you既可以代表单数,也可以代表复数。但表示泛指的时候,用he或one来表示。
例如:If a young person enters a classical music field only for money, he is in the wrong profession. 
3)物主代词与名词的呼应:my,our,his,her,its,their要与代替的名词在数上一致。
例如:The welfare department,as well as the other social services,will have its budget cut.
4)反身代词与其所代成分间的呼应。
例如:Many primitive people believed that by eating ananimal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.
5)指示代词与所代名词间的呼应:this和that指代单数名词或不可数名词,these和those指代复数名词(those还可以用作先行词,引导定语从句,表示“那些人”)。
例如:She invited all those who had been her former colleagues.
6)much和muchof后接不可数名词,而many和manyof后接可数名词的复数。
例如:There is not much coal left.
            A great many of the houses were knocked down by the earthquake.
7)表示量的词后面有的接可数名词,有的接不可数名词。
接可数名词的有:a number of,a rangeof,a series of十复数名词;
接不可数名词的有:a great deal of,an amount of十不可数名词;
既可接可数又可接不可数名词的有:a lot of,a variety of。
例如:1.The government attached a great deal of importance to education.
            2.Quiteanumberofwomenappliedforthisjob.
            3.The college library has avariety of books.
            4.An apple is avariety off ruit.
     

派生法的概念:

英语构词法中在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀,从而构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词的方法叫作派生法。

派生词的构成:

1、前缀:  
除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;后缀一般改变词类,而不引起词义的变化。  
(1)表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, non-,un-等,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词。
例如:appear出现→disappear消失  
            correct正确的→incorrect不正确的  
            lead带领→mislead领错  
            stop停下→non-stop不停  
(2)表示其他意义的前缀常用的有a-(多构成表语形容词), anti-(反对;抵抗), auto-(自动), co-(共同), en-(使),  inter-(互相), re-(再;又), sub-(下面的;次;小), tele-(强调距离)等。
例如:alone 单独的
            antigas 防毒气的  
            autochart 自动图表  
            cooperate 合作
            enjoy 使高兴  
            internet 互联网
            reuse 再用  
            subway 地铁
            telephone 电话  
2、后缀:  
英语单词不仅可以通过加前缀构成新词,也可加后缀构成新词。后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意义相近的其他词性;少数后缀还会改变词义,变为与原来词义相反的新词。 
(1)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence,-(e)r/-or(从事某事的人), -ese(某地人),-ess(雌性),-ful(一……),-ian(精通……的人),-ist(专业人员),-ment(性质;状态),-ness(性质;状态),-tion(动作;过程)等。
例如:differ不同于→difference区别  
             write写→writer作家  
             Japan日本→Japanese日本人  
             act表演→actress女演员  
             mouth口→mouthful一口  
             music音乐→musician音乐家  
(2)构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n(多用于形容词之后),-fy(使……化),-ize(使……成为)。
例如:wide→widen加宽  
            beauty→beautify美化  
            pure→purify提纯  
            real→realize意识到  
           organ→organize组织  
(3)构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al,-able(有能力的),-(a)n(某国人的),-en(多用于表示材料的名词后),-ern(方向的),-ese(某国人的),-ful,-(ic)al,-ish,-ive,-less(表示否定),-like(像……的),-ly,-ous,-some,-y(表示天气)等。
例如:nature自然→natural自然的  
            reason道理→reasonable有道理的  
            America美国→American美国的  
            China中国→Chinese中国人的  
            gold金子→golden金的  
            east东→eastern东方的  
            child孩子→childish孩子气的  
            snow雪→snowy雪的  
(4)构成副词的常用后缀有-ly(主要用于形容词之后表示方式或程度),-ward(s)(主要用于表示方位的词之后表示方向)。
例如:angry生气的→angrily生气地  
            to到→towards朝……,向……   
            east东方→eastward向东  
(5)构成数词的后缀有-teen(十几),-ty(几十),-th(构成序数词)。
例如:six六→sixteen十六→sixteenth第十六  
            four四→forty四十→fortieth第四十

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